تبلیغات
وبلاگ دانشجویان رشته مهندسی علوم دامی-طیور دانشگاه ملایر 89 - Mycotoxins and poultry production
 
درباره وبلاگ


سلامی گرم به همه عزیزانی كه در حال مشاهده و خواندن مطالب این وبلاگ می باشند... .
ما اوایل سال 89 وبلاگی را طراحی كردیم برای گروه علوم دامی - طیور دانشگاه ملایر! كه شرح وظایف آن از این قرار است:
1- جهت اطلاع رسانی بچه های گروه علوم دامی دانشگاه ملایر
2- جمع آوری اطلاعات مورد نیاز شما در مورد رشته علوم دامی
3- قدمی کوچک در راستای افزایش بنیه علمی شما
در صورتی كه از مطالب این وبلاگ استفاده می كنید، حتما نام نویسنده مطلب و منبع آن را ذكر كنید
در ضمن ...
در صورت هرگونه انتقاد یا پیشنهاد یا نظر در مورد نویسنده یا بهبود اوضاع وبلاگ به آدرس ایمیل simorghmu89@yahoo. اطلاع دهید
ممنون از همكاریتون

مدیر وبلاگ : فرید فتحی
پیوندهای روزانه
نظرسنجی
به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







به نظر شما کدام رشته کارشناسی ارشد مرتبط به علوم دامی بهتر است؟







جستجو

آمار وبلاگ
  • کل بازدید :
  • بازدید امروز :
  • بازدید دیروز :
  • بازدید این ماه :
  • بازدید ماه قبل :
  • تعداد نویسندگان :
  • تعداد کل پست ها :
  • آخرین بازدید :
  • آخرین بروز رسانی :
صفحه علوم دامی - طیور در فیس بوک  به ما بپیوندید تماس با ما تبلیغات پیامکی
وبلاگ دانشجویان رشته مهندسی علوم دامی-طیور دانشگاه ملایر 89
رسدی مژده که ایام غم نخواهد ماند - چنان نماند و چنین نیز هم نخواهد ماند"حافظ"




mycotoxins and poultry production


Mycotoxins are substances produced by fungi imperfecti which, in some cases, do protect plants or plant seeds against parasites (Schardl et al., 1996). However, upon ingestion, inhalation or dermal contact, these mold-produced substances are poisonous to vertebrates. Even with more than 100.000 species of fungi known, only some of them are active mycotoxin producers. The fungi species which are known to produce the most hazardous mycotoxins in agriculture and in animal production are Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium sp. Mycotoxins vary greatly regarding their toxicological effects as they do not belong to a single class of chemical compounds (Jewers, na). The environmental conditions in which they are preferably produced also differ. Fusarium toxins, such as trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins are commonly produced on the field, whereas aflatoxins and ochratoxins are produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium sp mainly after harvest and during poor storage conditions.


It is not easy to detect and to diagnose problems related to mycotoxins once their effects in animals are diverse, varying from immune suppression to death in severe cases, depending on toxin-related (type of mycotoxin consumed, level and duration of intake), animal-related (species, sex, age, breed, general health, immune status, nutritional standing) and environmental (farm management, hygiene, temperature) factors. Moreover, there is a drastic difference between scientific reports and field observations. In scientific feeding experiments animals are usually fed a known quantity of mycotoxins since the objective is to understand the impact of one or two mycotoxins in different parameters. Moreover, animals involved in research have a disease-free status and are kept under controlled conditions in order to minimize the influence of external factors in the results. In the field, however, animals are exposed to a wider range of mycotoxins and are subject to a broader variety of stressing factors. They may be in poor health conditions and fragile immune status and subjected to problematic management practices. All these factors contribute a great deal to the final susceptibility of animals to the presence of mycotoxins. So, it is not surprising if animals exhibit mycotoxicoses even at apparent "low levels" of mycotoxins present in the feed.

mmunosuppression… the hidden enemy

Some effects of mycotoxins cannot be immediately detected by visual examination; nonetheless they are revealed when animals are, for instance, faced with infectious agents. Immunosuppression is one of these effects, as confirmed by several scientific works. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins and trichothecenes – all these toxic compounds are known to decrease the resistance of animals rendering them more susceptible to diseases (Ghosh et al., 1990; Sharma, 1991; Dwivedi and Burns, 1984; Leeson et al., 1995; Singh et al., 1990; Harvey et al., 1991; Kidd et al., 1997).

In general, aflatoxins are the most immune suppressive (CAST, 2003). Aflatoxin B1 intoxication in broilers impacts the cell-mediated immunity by decreasing the albumin and globulin (Ghosh et al., 1990) which is in accordance with the knowledge that aflatoxin exerts an important role in the inhibition of protein synthesis. As for OTA, in 1984, Dwivedi and Burns investigated immunoglobulin concentration in birds' sera and found out that this was lower in OTA fed birds than in control sera. OTA combination with Salmonella increased by 13.2% the mortality rate of the challenged broiler chicks (Elissalde, 1994). Layers were more susceptible to typhimurium colonization (Fukata et al., 1995). In 2003, the presence of OTA increased mortality and the severity of an E. coli infection in broiler chicks (Kumar et al., 2003) and S. gallinarum infection in the absence of OTA caused 11.5% mortality, which increased to 28.8% in the presence of OTA in broiler chicks diets (Gupta et al., 2005). Trichothecenes were also reported to impact the immune system. DON reduced Newcastle Disease humoral titers of 18 week old pullets and decreased the stimulation index of splenocytes of broiler pullets (Harvey R. B., 1991). T-2 was also shown to be cytotoxic to chicken macrophages in vitro (Kidd et al., 1997).

Abnormal behavior… wet litter… strange occurrences? That could be mycotoxins!

Other impacts related with the presence of mycotoxins are: toxicity related with the nervous system (neurotoxicity); effects related with the production of blood cells (hematopoietic effects); kidney problems (nephrotoxicity); gastro-intestinal effects; problems related with feathering and mucous membranes (dermal effects) and birth defects of the offspring (teratogenic effects). The impact in all this different systems can often be recognized as animals show abnormal behavior or the daily routine of the farm is disturbed. Birds standing together in groups can be a sign of nervous syndrome caused by aflatoxins (Leeson et al., 1995)(Figure 2). Other signs of neurotoxicity include lack of reflexes and abnormal wing positioning caused by T-2 toxin (Wyatt et al., 1973). Pale bird syndrome is expressed in the animal by the paleness of the mucous membranes and legs. This syndrome is caused, amongst other factors, by aflatoxins intake (Tyczkowski, 1987) and may lead to the downgrading of the carcasses due to improper colouring. Although expressed by the color of the skin, jaundice (yellow skin) is actually a reflex of the hepatic alterations and hepatotoxic effects also caused by this toxin (Dalvi, 1986). Along with this, impaired feathering may also be observed, either by the ingestion of aflatoxins or trichothecenes (Leeson et al., 1995; Wyatt, 1975). The ingestion of these two groups of mycotoxins and fumonisins may also lead to the occurrence of hemorrhages, anemia or other hematological disorders (Weidenbörner, 2001; Kidd et al., 1997; Jand et al., 2005). Birth hatch defects caused by aflatoxins (Cilievici, 1980) will increase the number of chicks which are rejected at the beginning of the production cycle, with clear economic impacts. Diarrhea has been associated with the ingestion of trichothecenes (mainly DON) and fumonisins (Jand et al., 2005; Satheesh et al., 2004). This condition, as well as the increased water consumption and renal dysfunction caused by ochratoxins (Elling et al., 1975; Hamilton et al., 1982; Leeson et al., 1995) have serious impacts of the daily management of a production unit. In general, poultry are quite resistant to zearalenone; however, enhanced secondary sex characteristics and vent enlargement are stated in literature as effects caused by this toxin (CAST, 2003).


Figure 2: Nervous syndrome cause by aflatoxins


And moneywise… what are the effects?

Decreased feed intake and feed refusal, reduced daily weight gain and inhomogeneous flocks, impaired FCR, lower slaughter weight, decline on egg production, egg size, egg weight, egg shell quality, egg hatchability and higher mortality rates. These are the numerous effects which are observed in poultry fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets. Type A trichothecenes (T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscripenol) are of major concern to poultry industries and cause economic losses in productivity. They are highly toxic to poultry, especially broiler chickens as they have very low LD50 values (2 mg/kg for diacetoxyscirpenol and 4 mg/kg for T-2 toxin) (Leeson et al., 1995). An outbreak of a disease associated with the presence of T-2 in moldy barley was observed in poultry (ducks, geese). Lesions in the geese included necrosis of the mucosa of the oesophagus, proventriculus, and gizzard. (Greenway & Puls, 1976). T-2 toxin reduces feed intake, body weight, egg production and causes oral lesions (Wyatt et al., 1975). Young chicks and turkey poults are highly sensitive to ochratoxins (Leeson et al., 1995). These nephrotoxins can suppress feed intake, growth, egg production and additionally, they cause poor egg shell quality (CAST, 2003). Fumonisins are associated with spiking mortality in poultry (Jand et al., 2005). Signs of dietary fumonisin are decreased body weight and average daily weight gain as well as increased gizzard weight (Ledoux et al., 1992; Weibking et al., 1993). Other effects which can mean lower carcass value are, for example, the occurrence of higher number of bruises and bruised broilers caused by the increased capillary fragility due to aflatoxins ingestion. According to Tung and his team at 0.625 ppm AfB1 the minimum force required to bruise a broiler was lowered (Tung et al., 1971). His experiment was done in 1971, without the stress of modern production systems.

Pathological changes – another prove of mycotoxins presence

Changes in the organs weight, texture and/or coloration may be observed in the carcass after slaughtering if animals were fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets. Weight variations have been reported after ingestion of aflatoxins: positive for liver, spleen and kidneys (organs' enlargement) and negative for bursa of Fabricius and thymus (organs' reduction). Other pathological changes related with the ingestion of this mycotoxin comprehend the change in texture and coloration of liver and bursa of Fabricius (Espada et al., 1992; Jand et al., 2005; Leeson et al., 1995; Virdi et al., 1989). However, these alterations are not only related with aflatoxins ingestion; other groups of mycotoxins have been associated with necrosis of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues, gizzard lesions (trichothecenes) and kidney and liver weight increase and liver necrosis (fumonisins) (Hoeww et al., 1981; Huff et al., 1988; Lun et al., 1986; Ledoux et al., 1992; Leeson et al., 1995; Satheesh et al., 2004). In some countries, in case livers are expected to be sold, special attention should be taken regarding this aspect, as they might be rejected after inspection due to pathological changes.

Residues in animal products – food safety in risk?

Unfortunately, when mycotoxins in animal production are referred to, problems do not end with the slaughtering of animals. The carry-over of these compounds is known to occur for some of them, namely for aflatoxins, ochratoxins (Micco et al., 1987; CAST, 2003; Petersson, 2004) and FUM (Vudathala et al., 1994). Aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxicol - a carcinogenic metabolite of the carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (Wong and Hsieh, 1978) were found in eggs and tissues of laying hens consuming aflatoxin contaminated feeds (kidneys, liver, muscle, blood and ova). Aflatoxin M1 – classified by International Agency for Research on cancer (IARC) as a possible human carcinogen – was found only in the kidneys (Trucksess et al., 1083). Micco and his team studied the long-term administration of low doses of mycotoxins in poultry and reported that OTA residues in liver were higher in broilers (up to 11.0 ppb) than in hens (1.5 ppb), whereas the reverse occurred in kidney (up to .8 and 5.8 ppb, respectively) when animals were fed 50 ppb OTA contaminated feed from 14th day of age onward. IARC has evaluated OTA and included it in "Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans" (IARC, 1993). Although found at very low levels to, alone, represent a danger to human health, these might be other concerns for producers who care about the quality of products they deliver.

Mycotoxin Risk Management

Binders have been used throughout the years allegedly to counteract mycotoxins in animal feeds. This solution has been proved efficient against aflatoxicosis, but regarding other mycotoxins such as zearalenone and ochratoxin it was shown to be very limited or practically zero in the case of trichothecenes (Huwig et al., 2001). The problem is that due to their different nature and diverse chemical structures not all mycotoxins can be effectively adsorbed; therefore the successful approach to manage a diverse range of mycotoxins must comprehend not only adsorption but also biotransformation. Biotransformation stands for the conversion of mycotoxins into non-toxic metabolites by the action of enzymes or life microbes. It is known for years that some microorganisms are able to degrade some mycotoxins. However, only certain microorganisms, e.g., Biomin® BBSH 797 and Biomin® MTV, which have the potential to degrade trichothecenes (namely deoxynivalenol), ochratoxin A and zearalenone, meet the prerequisites for use as animal feed additives (Schatzmayr et al., 2006). Mycofix® gathers adsorption, biotransformation and bioprotection (plant and algae extracts for immune- and hepatoprotection) in one product – the most complete tool for a proper Mycotoxin Risk Management!

Literature

  • CAST Report (2003). Mycotoxins: risks in plant, animal, and human systems (Richard, J. L and Payne, G. A. eds.) Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Task Force report No. 139, Ames, Iowa, USA.
  • Cilievici, O., Cordos, I., Ghidus, E. and Moldovan, A. (1980). The toxic and teratogenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on the chick embryo development. Morphol. Embryol. (Bucur. ) 309-314.
  • Dalvi, R. R. (1986). An overview of aflatoxicosis of poultry: its characteristics, prevention and reduction. Vet. Res. Commun. 429-443.
  • Dwivedi, P. and Burns, R. B. (1984). Effect of ochratoxin A on immunoglobulins in broiler chicks. Res. Vet. Sci. 117-121.
  • EFSA (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request from the Commission related to Deoxynivalenol (DON) as undesirable substance in animal feed. EFSA J. 1-41.
  • EFSA (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request from the Commission related to Zearalenone as undesirable substance in animal feed. EFSA J. 1-35.
  • Elling, F., Hald, B., Jacobsen, C. and Krogh, P. (1975). Spontaneous toxic nephropathy in poultry associated with ochratoxin A. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. [A] 739-741.
  • Elissalde, M. H., Ziprin, R. L., Hiff, W. E., Kubena, L. E. And R. B. Harvey, 1994. Effect of ochratoxin A on Salmonella-challenged broiler chicks. Poult. Sci, 73: 1241-1248.
  • Espada, Y., Domingo, M., Gomez, J. and Calvo, M. A. (1992). Pathological lesions following an experimental intoxication with aflatoxin B1 in broiler chickens. Res. Vet. Sci. 275-279.
  • Fukata T., Sasai K., Baba E., Arakawa A. 1996. Effect of Ochratoxin A on Salmonella typhimurium- challenged Layer Chickens. Avian Diseases 40, 924 – 926
  • Ghosh, R. C., Chauhan, H. V. and Roy, S. (1990). Immunosuppression in broilers under experimental aflatoxicosis. Br. Vet. J. 457-462.
  • Greenway, J.A. and Puls, R. 1976. Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Colombia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis. Can. J. comp. Med., 40: 12-15.
  • Gupta S., Jindal N., Khokhar R. S., Gupta A., Ledoux D. R., Rottinghaus G. E.. 2005. Effect of ochratoxin A on broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella gallinarum. British Poultry Science 46 (4), 443 - 450
  • Hamilton, P. B., Huff, W. E., Harris, J. R. and Wyatt, R. D. (1982). Natural occurrences of ochratoxicosis in poultry. Poult. Sci. 1832-1841.
  • Harvey, R. B., Kubena, L. F., Huff, W. E., Elissalde, M. H. and Phillips, T. D. (1991). Hematologic and immunologic toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diets to growing chickens. Bull. Environ. Contam Toxicol. 410-416.
  • Hoerr, F. J., Carlton, W. W. and Yagen, B. (1981). Mycotoxicosis caused by a single dose of T-2 toxin or diacetoxyscirpenol in broiler chickens. Vet. Pathol. 652-664.
  • Huff, W. E., Harvey, R. B., Kubena, L. F. and Rottinghaus, G. E. (1988). Toxic synergism between aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 1418-1423.
  • Huwig A., Freimund S., Käppeli O., Dutler H. 2001. Mycotoxin detoxication of animal feed by different adsorbents. Toxicology Letters 122, 179 – 188.
  • Jand, S. K., Paviter Kaur and Sharma, N. S. (2005). Mycoses and mycotoxicosis in poultry: a review. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 465-476.
  • Jewers K. Mycotoxins and their effect on poultry production. Options Méditerranéennes, Sér. A 7, 195 – 202
  • Kidd, M. T., Qureshi, M. A., Hagler, W. M., Jr. and Ali, R. (1997). T-2 tetraol is cytotoxic to a chicken macrophage cell line. Poult. Sci. 311-313.
  • Kumar A., Jindal N., Shukla C. L., Pal Y., Ledoux D. R., Rottinghaus G. E.203. Effect of Ochratoxin A on Escherichia coli-Challenged Broiler Chicks. Avian Diseases 47, 415 – 424
  • Leeson, S., Diaz, G. and Summers, J. D. (1995) Poultry Metabolic Disorders and Mycotoxins, University Books, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  • Ledoux, D. R., Brown, T. P., Weibking, T. S. and Rottinghaus, G. E. (1992). Fumonisin toxicity in broiler chicks. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest 330-333.
  • Lun, A. K., Young, L. G., Moran, E. T., Jr., Hunter, D. B. and Rodriguez, J. P. (1986). Effects of feeding hens a high level of vomitoxin-contaminated corn on performance and tissue residues. Poult. Sci. 1095-1099.
  • Micco C, Miraglia M, Onori R, Ioppolo A, Mantovani A. 1987. Long-term administration of low doses of mycotoxins in poultry. 1. Residues of ochratoxin A in broilers and laying hens. Poult Sci., 66(1):47-50
  • Wong ZA and DP Hsieh, 1978. Aflatoxicol: major aflatoxin B1 metabolite in rat plasma. Science, Vol 200, Issue 4339, 325-327
  • Pettersson, H. (2004) Controlling mycotoxins in animal feed. In: Mycotoxins in food, detection and control (Magan, N. and Olsen, M., eds.), pp. 262-304. Woodhead Publishing Limited. Cambridge.
  • Satheesh, K., Ahmed, M. N., Srilatha, C. and Rao, T. C. S. (2004). Effects of Fumonisin-B1 toxicity on serum biochemistry in broiler chicken. Indian Veterinary Journal 1097-1099.
  • Schardl, J., Jensen, H., Latge, J., 1996. Epichloe festucae and related mutualistic symbionts on grasses. Fungal genetics and biology 33, 69-82.
  • Schatzmayr G., Täubel M., Vekiru E., Moll W. D., Schatzmayr D., Binder E. M., Krska R., Loibner A. P. 2006. Detoxification of mycotoxins by biotransformation. The Mycotoxin Factbook - Food & Feed Topics, 363 – 375.
  • Sharma, R. P. (1991) Immunotoxic effects of mycotoxins. In: Mycotoxins and Phytoalexins (Sharma, R. P. and Salunkhe, D. K., eds.), pp. 81-99. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida.
  • Singh, G. S., Chauhan, H. V., Jha, G. J. and Singh, K. K. (1990). Immunosuppression due to chronic ochratoxicosis in broiler chicks. J. Comp Pathol. 399-410.
  • Trucksess, M. W., Stoloff, L., Young, K., Wyatt, R. D. and Miller, B. L. (1983). Aflatoxicol and aflatoxins B1 and M1 in eggs and tissues of laying hens consuming aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Poult. Sci. 2176-2182.
  • Tung, H.T., Smith, J.W. and Hamilton, P.B., 1971. Aflatoxicosis and bruising in the chicken. Poultry Science. 50,796.
  • Tyczkowski, J. K. and Hamilton, P. B. (1987). Altered metabolism of carotenoids during aflatoxicosis in young chickens. Poult. Sci. 1184-1188.
  • Virdi, J. S., Tiwari, R. P., Saxena, M., Khanna, V., Singh, G., Saini, S. S. and Vadehra, D. V. (1989). Effects of aflatoxin on the immune system of the chick. J. Appl. Toxicol. 271-275.
  • Vudathala, D. K., Prelusky, D. B., Ayroud, M., Trenholm, H. L. and Miller, J. D. (1994). Pharmacokinetic fate and pathological effects of 14C-fumonisin B1 in laying hens. Nat. Toxins. 81-88.
  • Weibking, T. S., Ledoux, D. R., Brown, T. P. and Rottinghaus, G. E. (1993). Fumonisin toxicity in turkey poults. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest 75-83.
  • Weidenbörner, M. (2001) Encyclopedia of Food Mycotoxins, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Wyatt, R. D., Hamilton, P. B. and Burmeister, H. R. (1975). Altered feathering of chicks caused by T-2 toxin. Poult. Sci. 1042-1045.
  • Wyatt, R. D., Colwell, W. M., Hamilton, P. B. and Burmeister, H. R. (1973). Neural disturbances in chickens caused by dietary T-2 toxin. Appl. Microbiol. 757-761.
  • Wyatt, R. D., Doerr, J. A., Hamilton, P. B. and Burmeister, H. R. (1975). Egg production, shell thickness, and other physiological parameters of laying hens affected by T-2 toxin. Appl. Microbiol. 641-645.
  • گردآورنده ایرج شاکرشیدا(دانشجوی کارشناسی مهندسی علوم دامی دانشگاه ملایر)




  • نوع مطلب :
    برچسب ها :
    لینک های مرتبط :


    پنجشنبه 22 تیر 1391 :: نویسنده : ایرج شاکر شیدا
    نظرات ()
    شنبه 1 تیر 1398 06:24 ب.ظ

    You actually revealed this effectively!
    buy cialis uk no prescription click here cialis daily uk tarif cialis france cialis daily reviews sublingual cialis online safe dosage for cialis tadalafilo cialis 5 mg schweiz cialis coupon callus
    شنبه 1 تیر 1398 01:28 ق.ظ

    You revealed that perfectly.
    cialis purchasing cialis super kamagra import cialis buy brand cialis cheap cialis side effects venta cialis en espaa cialis qualitat cialis for sale cialis generico online canadian cialis
    سه شنبه 28 خرداد 1398 07:14 ق.ظ

    Nicely put. Thanks!
    cialis in sconto cialis pills boards buy original cialis when can i take another cialis cialis 20 mg cut in half buy name brand cialis on line female cialis no prescription cialis 100 mg 30 tablet prix de cialis cialis name brand cheap
    جمعه 24 خرداد 1398 03:10 ق.ظ

    Wow quite a lot of excellent facts.
    cialis generika india cialis 100mg cost cialis generico lilly cialis for bph cialis generika in deutschland kaufen prezzo di cialis in bulgaria cialis authentique suisse prices for cialis 50mg cialis usa cost cialis generic availability
    چهارشنبه 22 خرداد 1398 11:30 ب.ظ

    Kudos! Valuable information.
    how do cialis pills work cialis from canada free generic cialis only best offers cialis use cialis pas cher paris cialis professional from usa cialis pills boards legalidad de comprar cialis cialis generique 5 mg generic cialis at the pharmacy
    سه شنبه 21 خرداد 1398 01:49 ق.ظ

    Kudos. A good amount of material.

    click here take cialis cialis cost cialis per paypa try it no rx cialis cialis name brand cheap buy generic cialis no prescription cialis cheap cialis generique 5 mg cialis uk overnight cialis tadalafil
    یکشنبه 19 خرداد 1398 08:12 ب.ظ

    Regards. I appreciate it.
    cialis official site the best site cialis tablets comprar cialis navarr cost of cialis cvs rx cialis para comprar buy name brand cialis on line cialis generico milano buy online cialis 5mg cialis 5 mg funziona acheter cialis meilleur pri
    شنبه 24 فروردین 1398 09:17 ق.ظ

    Thanks a lot. Plenty of advice.

    canadian medications 247 canadian pharmaceuticals stocks canada medication pharmacy canadian medications canadian pharmacys canadian pharmacies stendra pharmacy times online canadian pharmacy canadian drugstore best canadian pharmacies online
    جمعه 16 آذر 1397 01:05 ب.ظ

    Regards! Useful information!
    generic cialis at the pharmacy what is cialis trusted tabled cialis softabs cialis lowest price acheter cialis meilleur pri estudios de cialis genricos cialis coupons generic cialis 20mg uk pastillas cialis y alcoho free generic cialis
    پنجشنبه 15 آذر 1397 05:53 ب.ظ

    Kudos, Very good information.
    generic low dose cialis try it no rx cialis cialis australian price cialis with 2 days delivery cialis for sale we use it cialis online store buy cialis online legal cialis australian price price cialis best buy cialis online cheapest
    چهارشنبه 14 آذر 1397 07:15 ق.ظ

    You said it nicely..
    cialis usa cost are there generic cialis how does cialis work wow look it cialis mexico cialis purchasing cialis uk next day cialis rckenschmerzen buy cialis online cialis sale online can i take cialis and ecstasy
    سه شنبه 13 آذر 1397 07:47 ب.ظ

    Incredible plenty of excellent information.
    prices on cialis 10 mg cialis generico postepay warnings for cialis generic cialis at the pharmacy buy cialis uk no prescription acheter du cialis a geneve cialis australian price buy cialis sample pack precios de cialis generico cialis 50 mg soft tab
    سه شنبه 13 آذر 1397 08:48 ق.ظ

    Wonderful write ups. Many thanks.
    buy cialis online nz cialis name brand cheap buying cialis overnight cialis 5 mg funziona how do cialis pills work generic cialis how to buy cialis online usa generic cialis tadalafil import cialis cialis 5 mg scheda tecnica
    یکشنبه 11 آذر 1397 07:49 ق.ظ

    You revealed it fantastically.
    cialis rezeptfrei sterreich acquisto online cialis prix cialis once a da try it no rx cialis cialis en 24 hora cialis professional yohimbe prix cialis once a da when will generic cialis be available cialis y deporte cialis kaufen wo
    شنبه 10 آذر 1397 08:38 ب.ظ

    Factor effectively taken..
    try it no rx cialis cialis online get cheap cialis canada discount drugs cialis cialis 5 mg funziona cialis kaufen bankberweisung buy cialis online legal cialis 100 mg 30 tablet low cost cialis 20mg cialis generisches kanada
    جمعه 9 آذر 1397 08:21 ق.ظ

    Wow plenty of fantastic information!
    low dose cialis blood pressure get cheap cialis where cheapest cialis cialis canadian drugs online prescriptions cialis generic cialis with dapoxetine cialis pills price each rx cialis para comprar cialis coupons printable prescription doctor cialis
    چهارشنبه 7 آذر 1397 08:52 ب.ظ

    You said it adequately.!
    we like it cialis soft gel buying cialis in colombia cialis super acti only best offers 100mg cialis are there generic cialis buy brand cialis cheap viagra cialis levitra price cialis best cialis kaufen wo wow look it cialis mexico
    چهارشنبه 7 آذر 1397 09:06 ق.ظ

    Very well spoken truly. !
    generic cialis levitra legalidad de comprar cialis cialis purchasing 200 cialis coupon cialis bula cialis per paypa we like it cialis soft gel generic cialis tadalafil best generic drugs cialis are there generic cialis
    یکشنبه 1 مهر 1397 09:49 ق.ظ

    You suggested this really well!
    canadianpharmacyusa24h canadian medications, liraglutide canada online pharmacy most reliable canadian online pharmacies canadian online pharmacy aarp recommended canadian pharmacies canada medication prices trust pharmacy canadian canada pharmacies canadian prescriptions online
    چهارشنبه 28 شهریور 1397 06:37 ق.ظ

    With thanks, I value this!
    cialis generic we recommend cialis info cialis et insomni cialis great britain miglior cialis generico cialis daily cialis diario compra cialis online napol how does cialis work cialis cost
    دوشنبه 12 شهریور 1397 01:16 ب.ظ

    Cheers, Plenty of posts.

    order generic cialis online generic cialis pill online cialis kaufen wo cialis uk prix de cialis cialis prezzo al pubblico cialis 20 mg effectiveness bulk cialis acheter du cialis a geneve click now cialis from canada
    سه شنبه 23 مرداد 1397 08:32 ق.ظ

    Very good knowledge. Thanks a lot!
    to buy viagra online viagra pharmacy prices viagra price where to buy herbal viagra viagra order uk buy viagra locally buy viagra nz buy viagra thailand can you buy viagra at the store sildenafil generic price
    دوشنبه 7 خرداد 1397 01:30 ب.ظ

    Thanks a lot, Numerous tips!

    buy cialis cheap 10 mg cialis generic availability free cialis cialis daily new zealand cialis name brand cheap price cialis wal mart pharmacy precios cialis peru buy cialis online cheapest tadalafil 10 mg cialis kaufen bankberweisung
    پنجشنبه 20 اردیبهشت 1397 05:41 ب.ظ

    Cheers. I like it!
    american pharmacy cialis cialis dose 30mg cialis wir preise 5 mg cialis pharmacie en ligne cialis from canada cialis 20 mg effectiveness comprar cialis navarr cialis sicuro in linea cialis 5 mg funziona buy cheap cialis in uk
    چهارشنبه 5 اردیبهشت 1397 09:13 ب.ظ

    Thanks! I value it.
    buy cheap viagra where to buy viagra without prescription buy real viagra buy uk viagra buy viagra brand online viagra online pharmacy levitra generic viagra uk online buy viagra online using paypal get viagra prescription viagra price uk
    شنبه 18 فروردین 1397 10:18 ب.ظ

    Really a good deal of fantastic facts!
    cialis prices in england cialis vs viagra cialis online napol look here cialis cheap canada we recommend cialis info acheter cialis kamagra cialis 5mg billiger cialis canada on line cialis cost achat cialis en europe
    جمعه 3 فروردین 1397 12:43 ق.ظ

    Incredible quite a lot of beneficial knowledge.
    cialis qualitat viagra vs cialis cialis herbs costo in farmacia cialis precios cialis peru how does cialis work the best choice cialis woman cialis generic tadalafil buy cialis australia org deutschland cialis online
    دوشنبه 23 مرداد 1391 01:14 ب.ظ
    جناب مهندس خواستم ازتون تشکرکنم چون به لاتین نوشتن بهونه ی هست برای یادگرفتنش
    ایشالله که فعالیت تون بیشترازقبل بشه ، پاینده وسربلند باشید
    ایرج شاکر شیداsalam.
    you،r wellcom
    سه شنبه 27 تیر 1391 10:21 ق.ظ
    بابا داش ایرج دمت گرم

    تو این گرمای تابستون كه همه دنبال پولن00000

    انگلیسی رو فول كردی كلك
    ایرج شاکر شیداسلام داش احسان.چه حبر؟
    تو آسمونا دنبالت می گردم تو زمین پیدات میکنم.
    جمعه 23 تیر 1391 09:21 ق.ظ
    salam.
    very very good.
    thank you
    ایرج شاکر شیداyou,r wellcom
     
    لبخندناراحتچشمک
    نیشخندبغلسوال
    قلبخجالتزبان
    ماچتعجبعصبانی
    عینکشیطانگریه
    خندهقهقههخداحافظ
    سبزقهرهورا
    دستگلتفکر